Metabolomics and phenotype assessment reveal cellular toxicity of triclosan in Caenorhabditis elegans


Triclosan (TCS) is an antibiotic that is added to household and personal care products. Recently, it has become more popular, turning into one of the major contaminants of the environment. This raises a dawning awareness regarding health and environmental issues. In this study, the toxicity of TCS to Caenorhabditis elegans was evaluated using a metabolomics approach. Additionally, the lifespan, locomotion, and reproduction of C. elegans were monitored for a better interpretation of toxic effects. In C. elegans exposed to TCS at the concentration of 1 mg/L, the average lifespan decreased in approximately 3 days. Reproduction and locomotion were also decreased with TCS exposure. The number of progenies, head thrashes, and body bends decreased to 45.15 ± 11.63, 39.60 ± 5.90, and 9.20 ± 1.56 with the exposure to TCS, respectively. Oxidative stress was induced by TCS exposure, which was confirmed by using DAF-16:GFP strain and H2DCF-DA-based ROS assay. Metabolomics analysis revealed that carbohydrates and amino acids related to energy production were considerably affected by TCS exposure. Additionally, levels of tyrosine, serine, and polyamines, responsible for neurotransmitter and stress response, were significantly altered. Collectively, our findings suggest that TCS induces toxic effects by various mechanisms and exerts a strong influence in various phenotypes of the tested model.



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